Please Name Some Specific Strategies for Malaria Control:
strategies against malaria are needed because there are
numerous species of vectors and four species of Plasmodium.
populations of Plasmodium, especially Plasmodium
falciparum, are resistant to drugs, so alternative
drugs need to be used.
needs to be done on new drugs as a "reserve weapon" for
future cases of drug resistance. Unfortunately, drug resistance
is more common in malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum,
the most dangerous type of malaria, than in the other
populations of mosquitoes have developed resistance to
certain insecticides. This resistance may be of varying
degrees. It is important that alternative insecticides
be available for breaking human-vector contact.
are constructed differently in different parts of the
world, and thus different strategies may be appropriate
in different places.
of Dwellings to Prevent Malaria Mosquitoes from Entering
and Biting the People Inside. Screening is a positive
development measure. Screening of buildings also improves
people's lives in other ways i.e. keeping flies out of
homes and cafes. Where it is possible [i.e. buildings
have four walls] to put screens on windows and screen
doors on doors, screening should be encouraged. Screening
is also a useful adjunct to use of a treated bednet or
residual treatment of walls because it reduces the number
of malaria mosquitoes entering and leaving the building
and increases the odds that Anopheles mosquitoes
that get into the building will be exposed to the treated
bednet or residual treatment.
reduction: This is possible in some conditions
but very difficult in other conditions. Malaria mosquitoes
breed in many different locations. Source reduction is
particularly useful if mosquitoes are breeding in man-made
containers such as water tanks or at construction sites.
If the mosquitoes are breeding in water tanks, for example,
it is possible to screen the tanks. However, if the malaria
mosquitoes are breeding in a swamp, it is not always possible
nore wise to attempt to drain the swamp. Thus, other strategies
for breaking transmission may need to be used.
treatment of malaria patients:
People who have malaria have parasites available for
malaria mosquitoes that bite them. If they are treated
with appropriate drugs, the parasites disappear from
their blood and are not available to the mosquitoes.
This helps to reduce the transmission of malaria.
however, often not everybody who has malaria parasites
available for mosquitoes shows the symptoms of malaria.
In some areas, including Africa, a very large percentage
of people [over 50%] may have malaria parasites yet
only some people [mostly small children and pregnant
women] show the symptoms. Thus, drug treatment of
patients is a helpful technique in controlling malaria,
but it cannot be the ONLY technique.
is becoming resistant to several of the drugs used
to treat it, and thus alternative strategies need
to be used.
of insect repellents: This is especially recommended
for those who are travelling or are temporarily in malarious
areas. This strategy is too expensive for many people
who actually live in malarious areas.
of mosquito mats and coils: This is similar to
the use of repellents. Some people may be allergic to
the smoke that these devices emit, and for some, these
devices are too expensive.
of bednets that are treated with an insecticide:
This is a strategy that has been proven to be effective
in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality in numerous
studies in subSaharan Africa by up to 35%. The mosquitoes
that land on the net are prevented from biting the person
sleeping under the net, and mosquitoes often avoid the
treatment of interior walls: In many instances,
malaria mosquitoes rest on the walls before or after biting
people. Residual treatment of the walls inside a house
repels or kills the mosquitoes. This malaria control strategy
is very effective where houses have four walls. An insecticide
with residual activity needs to be used so that the treatment
lasts for some months. Some insecticides are more expensive
than others. Also, malaria mosquitoes in some places are
resistant to some insecticides. Thus, a large variety
of possible insecticides need to be available for this