Spraying techniques are important

Malaria Research Network: Pesticides and Spraying Techniques: Spraying techniques are important


Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By GAMAL OSMAN on Thursday, December 28, 2000 - 03:15 pm:

I WAS SURPRISED WHEN YOU OPENED THE DEBATE ON THE FIRST ORGANIC PESTICIDE BEING INTRODUCED IN 1939 AS
A SOLUTION TO ERIDICATE MOSQUITOES IN MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAMS WORLD WIDE. AT THAT TIME THERE WAS INSUFFECEINT INFORMATION CONCERNING THE SPRAYING
TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT TO DISPERSE THE DDT.

ALL RESEARCHERS AND SCEINTISTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD AGREED THAT THERE WAS DRAMATICALLY MISUSE OF SPRAYING DDT BY USING POOR SPAYERS AND INEFFECTIVE
SPRAYING TECHNIQUES. WITH THE BEGINNING OF THE YEAR 2001 I BELEIVE THAT THERE ARE TREMENDOUS DATA AND INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO RE-ADDRESS THESE IMPORTANT
ISSUES. THEREFORE ÊI STRONGLY SUGGEST TO START OPENING DISSCUSION AND DEBATE CONCERNING VARIOUS TYPES OF SPRAYING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES WHICH PLAY THE MOST EFFECTIVE ROLE TO STOP SPREADING THE MOSQUITO POPULATION AND CONTAIN THE CONTINUED INCREASE OF MALARIA CASES WORLD WIDE

WE HAVE ALREADY LOST DDT AND MALATHIONE DUE TO MOSQUITO RESISTANCE.ÊMANY REPORTS CAME FROM SEVERAL LOCATIONS IN ASIA, AFRICA AND SOUTH AMERICA WHICH CONFIRMED THAT THE PYRETHROID GROUP OF PESTICIDES {THIS IS THE LATEST PESTICIDES GROUP} HAVE ALREADY REGISTERED THE RESISTANCE BY MOSQUITOS .WE ARE LOOSING ONE OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE TOOLS AVAILABLE TO CONTROL MALARIA WHICH MEANS THE SOONER WE WILL FACE SUBSTANTIAL OUTBREAK OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS WORLD WIDE AND HAVE NO EFFECTIVE PESTICIDE IN OUR HAND WHICH WE CAN COUNT ON.

NEW ERA OF USING PESTICIDES AGAINST MOSQUITOES DEPENDS ON THE PROPER PESTICIDE SPRAY WITH LOWEST QUANTITY AND MINIMUM ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION FOR
ACHEIVING THE MAXIMUM RESULTS. THIS IS THE KEY ISSUE OF PROPER SPRAYING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES.

Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By Stephen G. Day on Thursday, December 28, 2000 - 06:38 pm:

Recently published research by US researchers indicate that in a field trial, one thing that came to light was that mosquitoes appeared to avoid entering a house that had been sprayed with DDT where as they did enter houses sprayed with alternatives. This, one would assume, would help to reduce the incidence of Malarial infection by the inhabitants of that house, irrespective of the mosquitoes resistance to all or any chemicals.

Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By Anonymous on Saturday, December 30, 2000 - 05:00 am:

TO STEPHEN G. DAY.If so, why not spray less toxic mosquito repellants? Anonymous

Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By Anonymous on Monday, January 01, 2001 - 08:54 pm:

TO STEPHEN G.DAY. MANY REPORTS FROM ANGOLA , MOZAMBIQUE , SAUDI ARABIA AND OTHER HAVE CONFIRMED THAT MOSQUITO ANOPHELES HAS CHANGED ITS BEHAVIOR FROM ENDOPHELIC TO EXOPHELIC DUE TO CONTINUED MISUSING PESTICIDES . SIMPLY THIS MEANS THAT ALL RESIDUAL APPLICATIONS [INDOOR SPRAY ] AND EVEN THE NEW PUSHING TECHNIQUE OF BED NET ARE NO LONGER AFFECTING IN THE MOSQUITO KILLING

FROM GAMAL OSMAN
GOSMAN1234@AOL.COM

Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By GAMAL OSMAN on Friday, January 05, 2001 - 09:30 pm:

PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLL FOR THE MOST EFFECTIVE MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAM.MANY MISTAKES WERE MADE IN THE PAST 40 YEARS BY ALL MALARIA CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS WORLD WIDE WHEN THEY HAVE LIMITED THEIR MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAM BY ONLY USING THE RESIDUAL SPRAYING TECHNIQUE BASED ON KNAPSACK SPRAYERS AND DDT OR MALATION OR OTHER CHEMICAL AND ROLLED OUT OTHER SPRAYING TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THERMAL FOGGING TECHNIQUE , COLD/AEROSOL SPRAYING TECHNIQUE , ULTRA VOLUME SPRAYING TECHNIQUE , LOW VOLUME AND HIGH VOLUME SPRAYING TECHNIQUES .
EVEN WITHIN ONE INTERNATIONAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION OR MEDICAL HEALTH INSTITUTE ALL MALARIOLOGESTS OR MEDICAL RESEARCHERS ARE DIVIDED AND CAN'T AGREE UPON ONE SPRAYING TECHNIQUE TO DISPERSE PESTICIDES AGAINST MOSQUITO .SOME COUNTRIES HAVE BAND THE USE OF THERMAL FOGGING TECHNIQUE AND OTHER COUNTRIES PROHIBIT THE USE OF ULTRA LOW VOLUME TECHNIQUE IN THEIR MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAMS NATIONWIDE HOWEVER NONE OF THESE COUNTRIES HAVE A PROOF TO JUSTIFY THEIR RESTRICTED REGULATION AS FAR AS PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUES ARE CONCERN . UNFORTUNATELY THIS LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUE HAS LED TO DRAMATICAL CONFUSIONS AMONG MALARIA CONTROL STAFF WORLD WIDE AND CAUSED TREMENDOUS DAMAGE TO THE COUNTRY MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAM . MISUSED PESTICIDES WITH MISAPPLICATION TECHNIQUES WERE BEHIND THE MOSQUITO RESISTANT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN OUR SOCIETIES .IF WE REALLY SERIOUS IN ROLL BACK MALARIA AND CONTAIN OR EVEN ERADICATE THIS FATAL DISEASE WE HAVE TO GET BETTER UNDERSTANDING FOR ALL TOOLS AVAILABLE INCLUDING ALL USEFUL PESTICIDE AND UTILIZE ALL PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUES . MANY MALARIA CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE RECENTLY INTRODUCED THE MOSQUITO BED NET AS THE ONLY SOLUTION TO PROTECT CHILDREN AND ELDER PEOPLE FROM MALARIA BUT WE ARE STILL FAR BEHIND TO ACHIEVE A SUCCESSFUL , WELL SOUND AND FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM FOR CONTROL OF MALARIA. WE MUST USE ALL OPTIONS WITHOUT ROLL OUT CERTAIN METHODS OR TECHNIQUES .

GAMAL OSMAN
GOSMAN1234@AOL.COM

Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of pageLink to this message   By GAMAL OSMAN on Sunday, January 07, 2001 - 10:58 pm:

PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUE {PST} MEANING AND VALUE .*.*.*.*.*.
==============================================
PST IS THE METHOD OF PESTICIDE APPLICATION BY USING LOWEST QUANTITY FOR ACHIEVING THE MOST EFFECTIVE RESULTS WITH THE MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION.PST PLAYS A VERY IMPORTANT ROLL IN ANY MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAMS PARTICULARLY AFTER THE CONTINUED RECORDED OF MOSQUITO RESISTANT AGAINST PESTICIDES IN SEVERAL PARTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD .
THERE IS NO DOUBT THE DUE TO THE LACK OF KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING PST WAS BEHIND ALL THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND SUBSTANTIALLY CONTRIBUTED FOR THE CONTINUED APPEARING AND SPREADING OF MALARIA CASES WORLDWIDE.
THERE ARE 5 MAJOR PST WHICH CAN BE SUMMARIZED AS FOLLOWING ;

1} THERMAL FOGGING TECHNIQUE (TFT}
===============================
THERE ARE TWO MAJOR THERMAL FOGGING MACHINES
WHICH ARE AVAILABLE IN THE VECTOR CONTROL
PROGRAMS SUCH AS :
A] JET FOGGER UNITS {JFU} . THIS KIND OF
FOGGER CONTENTS OF BURNER AND FOGGING TUBE
WITH PESTICIDE TANK WHERE UP TO 45 % OF
PESTICIDE ACTIVE INGREDIENTS ARE BURNED DUE
TO THE HIGH HEAT .FURTHER RESEARCH STUDY
IS ESSENTIALLY REQUIRED TO DETERMINED THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SUB LETHAL DOSE
OF BURNED PESTICIDE AND MOSQUITO RESISTANT.
B] TURBINE POWERFUL FOGGING MACHINES {TPFM}.
THESE ARE THE MOST EFFECTIVE THERMAL FOG
MACHINES TO PROVIDE THE APPROPRIATE RESULT
REQUIRED. HEAVY DUTY TURBINE BLOWER AND
GASOLINE ENGINE ARE EQUIPPED TO THE MACHINE
TO SECURE AND PROTECT THE PESTICIDE
ACTIVE INGREDIENT WITHOUT ANY DEGRADATION.
THERMAL FOGGING TECHNIQUE PRODUCED BY TPFM
IS UP TO 10 TIMES MORE EFFECTIVE AND HIGHER
PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY.PESTICIDES
MUST BE DILUTED IN DIESEL, KEROSINE, OR
MINERAL OIL AT THE RATE OF 5%, 10% , 15,%
20% OR OTHER.PESTICID SOLUTIONS ARE
ATOMIZED INTO A SPECTRUM OF FINE DROPLETS
SIZE RANGING BETWEEN 1 MICRON TO 50 MICRON
( ONE MILLIMETER IS EQUAL TO 1000 MICRON).
TFT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR MOSQUITO
ADULTS ONLY AS THERE IS NO RESIDUAL EFFECT
OF PESTICIDE AFTER 24-48 HOURS OF
APPLICATION.
2} COLD FOGGING [AEROSOL] TECHNIQUE.(CFT).
=======================================
PESTICIDES MUST BE DILUTED SIMILAR TO THE
SAME RATE OF DILUTION AS TFT BUT WATER CAN BE
USED FOR DILUTION IN ADDITIONAL TO DIESEL ,
KEROSINE, OR MINERAL OIL . SPECTRUM OF DROPLETS
SIZE VARYS FROM 20 MICRON TO 200 MICRON.
SEVERAL AEROSOL GENERATORS ARE AVAILABLE FOR
INDOOR AND OUTDOOR TREATMENT.CFT IS HIGHLY
RECOMMENDED FOR MOSQUITO ADULTS AND LARVA
CFT HAS LONG RESIDUAL EFFECT UP TO 10 DAYS
FROM DATE OF APPLICATION , IT DEPENDS ON TYPE
OF PESTICIDES BEING USED .
3} ULTRA LOW VOLUME TECHNIQUE [ UV].
=================================
NO DILUTION OF PESTICIDES IS REQUIRED BUT
CHEMICAL MUST BE MANUFACTURED AND RECOMMENDED
FOR UV TECHNIQUE. SPECTRUM OF DROPLETS SIZE
RANGES FROM 10 MICRON TO 150 MICRON WITH
RESIDUAL EFFECT UP TO 21 DAYS BASED ON THE
TYPE OF PESTICIDES BEING USED .UV IS MAINLY
FOR OUTDOOR TREATMENT OF MOSQUITO ADULTS.
4} RESIDUAL AND LARVACIDING TECHNIQUE[RLT].
========================================
PESTICIDES MUST BE DILUTED IN WATER , DIESEL ,
KEROSINE , OR MINERAL OIL WHERE THE SPECTRUM OF
DROPLETS SIZE VARYS FROM 40 MICRON UP TO 300
MICRON .RLT IS MAINLY RECOMMENDED FOR BOTH
INDOOR AND OUTDOOR TREATMENT FOR MOSQUITO
ADULTS AND LARVA .
5} CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH VOLUME TECHNIQUE [CHT].
=============================================
THERE IS NO EFFECT OF THE DROPLETS SIZE FOR
PESTICIDES SOLUTIONS WHERE MAINLY WATER IS
USED FOR DILUTION . THE PRODUCED DROPLETS SIZE
ARE ABOVE 300 MICRON WHICH ARE RECOMMENDED
MAINLY FOR CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVA AND
BREEDING AREAS ( WATER BODIES , GARBAGE
COLLECTION FACILITIES , LANDFILL, AND OTHER)

IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE MOST EFFECTIVE MALARIA
CONTROL PROGRAM ALL ABOVE MENTIONED SPRAYING TECHNIQUES MUST BE UTILIZED WITHOUT ROLLING OUT AND OF THEM. WE SHOULDN'T USE ONE TECHNIQUE AND IGNORE THE OTHER PARTICULARLY DURING THE OUTBREAK
OF MALARIA IN ANY VILLAGE,CITY,PROVINCE,STATE , OF COUNTRY CONCERNED.

GAMAL OSMAN
E-MAIL GOSMAN1234@AOL.COM